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Annotated Bibliography:
Selected Resources for Teaching Greek and Latin

John Gruber-Miller
Last updated: March 2014

This bibliography does not claim to be exhaustive, but is intended as a starting point for language teachers who wish to explore specific topics in more depth. The works listed below are selected because they are good introductions to the topic, are accessible, and/or include practical activities for classroom use.

Table of Contents

Places to Start

Focus on the Learner

Focus on the Language

Other Issues/Other Resources

Professional Development

Places to Start

Introductory Textbooks
Celce-Murcia, Marianne, ed. 2001. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Sections on teaching methodologies, the four language skills, teaching grammar, integrated approaches, learner needs, and on-going teacher development. Each chapter includes activities for classroom use.

Hadley, Alice Omaggio. 2001. Teaching Language in Context. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
A proficiency-oriented approach to language teaching, where proficiency is the goal of language learning, not the method. Reviews research on language learning, various teaching methodologies, and the importance of context in comprehending and learning a language. Additional chapters on the four skills, culture, testing, and designing the curriculum integrate research and specific classroom activities.

Shrum, Judith, and Eileen W. Glisan. 2009. Teacher’s Handbook: Contextualized Language Instruction. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
A great text for teaching a methods course. Argues that language introduced and taught in meaningful contexts develops learner competency, and that learning and development are as much social processes as cognitive processes. Incorporates the Standards into each chapter. Each chapter also offers teaching examples and case studies for readers to reflect on, providing examples from elementary, middle, high schools, and beyond. Finally, the role of sociocultural theory, especially Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development, is integrated into each chapter’s conceptual framework.

Research on Second Language Acquisition (SLA)
Brown, H. Douglas. 2007. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. 5th ed. White Plains, NY: Pearson Longman.
Reviews research on how we learn languages (first and second) and how learner styles, personality and sociocultural factors influence language acquisition; defines communicative competence, and summarizes various theories of second language acquisition. Less technical than Gass and Selinker.

Cook, Vivian. 2008. Second Language Learning and Teaching. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Geared to language teachers and teacher-trainees, the book begins with particular aspects of SLA--how we learn grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary, and writing–and gradually expands to larger issues--how learners process language by listening and reading, learner characteristics, language in the classroom and in society. The book ends with overall models of SLA and styles of language teaching. Intended audience similar to Brown.

Gass, Susan, and Jennifer Behney. 2013. Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course. 4th ed. New York: Routledge.
More detailed introduction to second language acquisition. Chapters on the influence of first language on second language acquisition; SLA and linguistics; universal grammar; learners’ interlanguage; input, interaction, and output; learner characteristics; the lexicon; and instructed second language learning.

Lightbown, Patsy, and Nina Spada. 2013. How Languages Are Learned. Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers. 4th ed. Oxford UP.
In just over 200 pages, Lightbown and Spada present the main theories of language acquisition, considering their bearing on language teaching. It discusses the effects of factors such as intelligence, personality, and age. It focuses on how instruction and feedback affect second-language acquisition in classrooms where the emphasis is on "communicative" or "content-based" language teaching and helps teachers assess the merits of different methods and textbooks.

Mitchell, Rosamond, and Florence Myles. 2012. Second Language Learning Theories. 3rd ed. London, ENG: Hodder Arnold.
Written by an expert in second language teaching and a linguist with research interests in second language acquisition, the book surveys and critiques theories of second language learning, linguistic, psycholoinguistic, and sociolinguistic. The book is intended as an introduction to the field for students without substantial background in linguistics. Each chapter reviews a select number of empirical studies to illustrate the kind of research characteristic of the approach under discussion, the scope and nature of the language facts which are felt to be important, and the kinds of generalizations to be drawn.

Macaro, Ernesto. 2003. Teaching and Learning a Second Language: A Review of Recent Research. London, ENG: Continuum.
Macaro writes this review of recent research with a teacher in mind. He includes chapters on theories, grammar, and methods, vocabulary, attitudes and motivation, reading, listening, oral interaction, and writing.

History of Language Teaching and Language Teaching Methodologies
Kelly, L. G. 1969. 25 Centuries of Language Teaching: An Inquiry into the Science, Art, and Development of Language Teaching Methodology, 500 B.C.-1969. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
The title says it all.

Kitchell, Kenneth F., Jr. 1998. “The Great Latin Debate: The Futility of Utility.” In Richard A. LaFleur, ed. Latin for the 21st Century. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley. 1-14.
A brief history of “how Latin has been taught, attacked, and defended at various crucial points in its history.”

Larsen-Freeman, Diane, and Marti Anderson. 2011. Techniques and Principles of Language Teaching. 3rd ed. Oxford, ENG: Oxford University Press.
Explores language teaching methodologies from grammar-translation and the Direct Method to Total Physical Response and Communicative Language Teaching. It also includes more recent methodological innovations, such as content-based, task-based, and participatory approaches as well as strategy training, cooperative learning, and multiple intelligences. Readers are encouraged to reflect on their own beliefs and develop their own approach to language teaching.

Richards, Jack C., and Theodore S. Rogers. 2014. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. 3rd ed. Cambridge, ENG: Cambridge University Press.
A survey of the major foreign language teaching methodologies, discussing the theory of language learning, goals, and classroom activities and techniques behind each approach.

Sebesta, Judith Lynn. 1998. “ALIQUID SEMPER NOVI: New Challenges, New Approaches.” In Richard A. LaFleur, ed. Latin for the 21st Century. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley. 15-24.
A review of how Latin has been taught since World War II.

 

Focus on the learner

Learning Styles/Learner Variables

Claxton, Charles S., and Patricia H. Murrell. 1987. Learning Styles: Implications for Improving Educational Practices. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4. College Station, TX: Association for the Study of Higher Education.
Reviews four approaches to learning styles of college students: personality, information processing, social interaction, and instructional methods. Includes techniques for applying one’s knowledge on learning styles to improve student learning.

Ehrman, Madeline E. 1996. Understanding Second Language Learning Difficulties. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
This book is designed for classroom teachers to diagnose learning difficulties and begin to remedy those difficulties. It includes case studies that present readily identifiable, relatively easy-to-understand types of learners, addressing learning styles, affective factors, and learning strategies.

Ehrman, Madeline E., Betty Lou Leaver, and Rebecca L. Oxford. 2003. “A Brief Overview of Individual Differences in Second Language Learning.” System 31: 313-30.
Offers a brief, but broad overview of individual differences in language learning, focusing on learning styles, learning strategies, and affective variables, such as motivation.

Horwitz, Elaine K., and Dolly J. Young. 1991. Language Anxiety: From Theory and Research to Classroom Implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Includes a review of anxiety research, presents theoretical conceptualizations of language anxiety, empirical findings, students’ perspectives, and teaching strategies for helping learners cope with anxiety.

O’Malley, J. Michael, and Anna Uhl Chamot. 1993. “Learner Characteristics in Second Language Acquisition.” In Alice Omaggio Hadley, ed. Research in Language Learning: Principles, Processes, and Prospects. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook. 96-123.
Provides a view of learning based on cognitive theory; describes learning strategies (metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective), motivation, aptitude, and learning style; reviews empirical research; and discusses intructional implications.

Oxford, Rebecca L. 1990. Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. New York, NY: Newbury House.
Offers practical recommendations for developing students’ second language learning strategies, including detailed suggestions for strategy use in each of the four language skills.

Oxford, Rebecca L. 1996. “New Pathways of Language Learning Motivation.” In Rebecca L. Oxford, ed. Language Learning Motivation: Pathways to the New Century. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center. 1-8.
Presents a short overview of the history of language learning motivation research and discusses current efforts to expand the theory of language learning motivation.

Reid, Joy, ed. 1998. Understanding Learning Styles in the Second Language Classroom. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Features sixteen chapters on such topics as introduction to multiple intelligence theory and second language learning, bridging the gap between teaching styles and learning styles. Additional chapters on how learning styles intersect with reading, writing, collaboration, technology, and LD. An appendix contains a compilation of instruments useful for identifying learning styles.

Feminist approaches
Brantmeier, Cindy. 2001. “Second Language Reading Research on Passage Content: Challenges for the Intermediate Curriculum.” Foreign Language Annals 34: 325-33.
Summarizes research on passage content and gender on reading comprehension and shows that passage content clearly influences one gender to be more successful than the other.

Calder, William M., and Judith P. Hallett, eds. 1996-97. Special Issue: Six Women Classicists. Classical World 90.2-3: 83-197.
Biographical articles on Abby Leach, Edith Hamilton, Gertrude Hirst, Elizabeth Haight, Gertrude Smith, and Mary White.

Chavez, Monika. 2001. Gender in the Language Classroom. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Surveys and summarizes research on language learning and gender. Topics include gender and achievement, male-female interaction and behavior, motivation, beliefs, and learning styles.

Garrett, Alice. 2002. “Teaching Latin with a Feminist Consciousness.” Classics Technology Center (CTCWeb). On-line. Available: http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/netshots/lat101garrett1.html.
Good place to start. Defines feminism and feminist consciousness; provides basic questions to ask to see if women are represented, and critiques three reading textbooks: OLC, CLC, Ecce.

McClure, Laura, ed. 2000. “Special section on Feminist Pedagogy.” Classical World 94.1: 53-71.
Includes articles by McClure on feminist approaches and the classics, Hoover on contextualizing learning with a case study of the OLC and Wheelock, Strange on a collaborative approach to teaching the Somnium Scipionis, and Gold on teaching and learning beginning Greek.

Rifkin, Benjamin, et al. 1998. “Gender Representation in Foreign Language Textbooks: A Case Study of Textbooks in Russian.” Modern Language Journal 82: 217-36.
Establishes a series of criteria for assessing the equity of gender representation in foreign language textbooks, and then applies the criteria to Russian textbooks.

Schmitz, Betty. 1985. Integrating Women's Studies into the Curriculum: A Guide and Bibliography. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press.
Seminal work that identifies four categories for assessing the representation of women in elementary foreign language textbooks: exclusion, subordination, distortion, and degradation

Multicultural Awareness/Diversity in the ancient world
Chew, Kristina. 1997. “What Does E Pluribus Unum Mean? Reading the Classics and Multicultural Literature Together.” Classical Journal 93: 55-81.
Focuses primarily on literature in translation, but offers reasons and ways for increasing diversity in the classroom.

George, Edward V. 1998. “Latin and Spanish: Roman Culture and Hispanic America.” In Richard A. LaFleur, ed. Latin for the 21st Century. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley. 227-236. Additional materials On-line. Available: http://www.languages.ttu.edu/faculty/egeorge/LatSpanWebsite/LatSpanMasterPage.htm.
Offers arguments for adding Spanish to the Latin classroom. Provides overview of connections between Latin and Spanish along with practical activities and charts comparing the two languages.

Gruber-Miller, John. 2008. "Teaching Culture in Beginning Greek." CPL Online 4.1: 1-10.
Makes the case why culture is an essential component of learning a language, offers an approach to teaching culture, and then provides examples from his website Ariadne that encourage students and teachers to look at the ancient Mediterranean through others' eyes.

Maiken, Peter T. 1991. “Latin as Minority Motivator.” Classical Outlook 69: 11-14.
Describes the multicultural Alexandria Project in Beloit, Wisconsin.

Students with Special Needs
Ashe, Althea. 1998. “Latin for Special Needs Students: Meeting the Challenge of Students with Learning Disabilities.” In Richard A. LaFleur, ed. Latin for the 21st Century. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley. 237-50.
Briefly describes why we need to accommodate LD students, why Latin may be a good language for LD students to study, and offers some basic ways to accommodate LD students: response journals, accountability logs, multisensory approach, vocabulary techniques, verb and noun charts, and testing accommodations.

Chanock, Kate. 2006. "Help for a dyslexic learner from an unlikely source: the study of ancient Greek." Literacy 40.3: 164-70.
'This paper recounts the process by which a severely reading‐disabled adult student taught himself to read and write Ancient Greek, and in so doing, improved his ability to read and write in English. Working on transliteration focused Keith's attention on the alphabetic principle separately from meaning, while practising translation focused on the formal markers of meaning. Relieved of the stress of performing under pressures of time and others' expectations, Keith made good progress with Greek and found himself reading more fluently in English. This paper seeks to contribute to our knowledge of how adults learn to read, looking at the interplay of motivation, phonological awareness, knowledge of how form conveys meaning, and the learning environment.'

Sparks, Richard L., Kay Fluharty, Leonore Ganschow, and Sherwin Little. 1995. “An Exploratory Study on the Effects of Latin on the Native Language Skills and Foreign Language Aptitude of Students with and Without Learning Disabilities.” Classical Journal 91: 165-84.
Hypothesizes that LD students’ native language skills improve when taught Latin with a multisensory approach.

Sparks, Richard L., Leonore Ganschow, Silvia Kenneweg, and Karen Miller. 1991. “Use of an Orton-Gillingham Approach to Teach a Foreign Language to Dyslexic/Learning Disabled Students: Explicit Teaching of Phonology in a Second Language.” Annals of Dyslexia 41: 96-117.
Explains a multisensory, structured language approach which adheres to the direct and explicit teaching of phonology. It emphasizes simultaneous writing and pronunciation so that students can “see,” “hear,” and “do” the language.

Collaborative and Cooperative Learning
Davis, Robert L. 1997. “Group Work is NOT Busy Work: Maximizing Success of Group Work in the L2 Classroom.” Foreign Language Annals 30: 265-79.
Useful overview of using group work, offering guidelines for implementing group work and suggestions for specific activities within a communicative framework.

Fathman, Ann K., and Carolyn Kessler. 1993. "Cooperative Language Learning in School Contexts." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 13: 127-140.
Examines the major principles of cooperative learning and applies them to learning foreign languages.

Kessler, Carolyn, ed. 1992. Cooperative Language Learning: A Teacher's Resource Book. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
The essays in Part 1, Foundations of Cooperative Learning, make the case that CL enhances interaction and communication in the classroom. Part 2, Language through Content, shows how language is a tool for learning content. Part 3, Focus on Teachers, compares teacher-fronted classrooms with student-centered CL. Sample mini-lessons are included in a number of chapters.

Oxford, Rebecca L., and Martha Nyikos, eds. 1997. Special Issue on “Interaction, Collaboration, and Cooperation: Learning Languages and Preparing Language Teachers.” Modern Language Journal 81.4.
The lead article defines interaction, collaboration, and cooperative learning and presents the research behind each. Additional articles on interacting with authentic texts, computer-mediated collaborative learning, group dynamics and motivation, interactive listening, and collaborative learning in teacher education.

Whitman, Neal A. 1988. Peer Teaching: To Teach is To Learn Twice. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4. College Station, TX: Association for the Study of Higher Education.
Describes the use of students as teachers in higher education. Four sections discuss 1) the psychological basis for benefits of peer teaching; 2) types of peer teaching; 3) strategies for implementing peer teaching at the institutional level; and 4) classroom level.

Williams, Mark F. 1991. "Collaborative Learning in the College Latin Classroom." Classical Journal 86.3: 256-261.
Argues that collaborative learning in intermediate Latin can not only help students become “owners” of the subject matter and reinforce fundamentals of grammar and syntax, but also help students make the jump from grammar and syntax to the great themes and values conveyed by the language. The article then offers an explanation and examples of three types of questions each group must answer: observation, interpretation, and application.

FLES (Foreign Language in the Elementary School)
Osburn, LeaAnn. 1998. “Latin in the Middle Grades.” In Richard A. LaFleur, ed. Latin for the 21st Century. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley. 70-89.
Describes characteristics of middle grade learners, different approaches to designing middle grade programs, and characteristics of effective instruction, sample activities, and resources for teaching the middle grades.

Polsky, Marion. 1998. “Latin in the Elementary Schools.” In Richard A. LaFleur, ed. Latin for the 21st Century. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley. 59-69.
Briefly surveys the history of K-6 Latin programs, provides an annotated list of textbooks available, and describes characteristics of younger learners.

Focus on the Language

Listening and Speaking
Abernathy, Faye, Jill Crooker, Margaret Curran, and David Perry. 1990. The Development of Oral Skills in Latin with Visuals. A Supplementary Guide to the Syllabus Latin for Communication. Draft Copy. Albany, NY: New York State Education Department.
A wide variety of classroom activities.

Adair-Hauck, Bonnie, and Richard Donato. “The PACE Model: A Story Based Approach to Meaning and Form for Standards Based Language Learning.” French Review 76 (2002): 265-76.

-----. “The PACE Model—Actualizing the Standards through Storytelling.” French Review 76 (2002): 278-98.
The PACE model integrates grammar with speaking and listening. It begins with the Presentation of a story, followed by Attention to the new structure, Co-construction of an explanation of the new structure, and Extension activities to help the learner use the new structure within a communicative framework.

Auden, H. W. Greek Phrase Book. London, ENG: Duckworth.
Thousands of words and phrases organized by topic, each accompanied by citations from ancient authors. See Latin Phrase Book below.

Beach, Goodwin B., and Ford Lewis Battles. 1967. Locutionum Cotidianarum Glossarum: A Guide to Latin Conversation. 3rd ed. Hartford, CT: Hartford Seminary Press.
A glossary of terms culled from Plautus, Terence, Cicero’s letters, Cato, Varro, Columella, Petronius, and Apicius, needed for daily situations, domestic, business, agricultural, and general daily life.

Coffee, Neil. 2012. “Active Latin: quo tendimus?” Classical World 105.2: 255-69
Surveys the development of spoken Latin after World War II, the role of the Standards for Classical Language Learning, and describes three major approaches to oral Latin today, as exemplified by Nancy Llewellyn, Terence Tunberg, and Luigi Miraglia.

Gruber-Miller, John. 2005. "Developing Listening and Speaking Skills: Practical Ways to Implement the Standards with the Oxford Latin Course." Classical Journal 101: 87-98.
After making a case for integrating listening and speaking into the classroom, the article explains more than a dozen speaking and listening activities that can be used with any textbook.

Littlewood, William. 1992. Teaching Oral Communication: A Methodological Framework. Oxford, ENG: Blackwell.
Offers a framework for learning language that integrates grammar into a communicative methodology, and discusses a range of communicative activities that help learners internalize the language system so that they can eventually use language for authentic communication.

Meissner, C. 1981. Latin Phrase Book. Trans. H. W. Auden. London, ENG: Duckworth.
More extensive than Beach and Battles; covers daily life as well as more abstract topics, such as the human life, the mind, emotions, virtues and vices, arts and sciences, and religion.

Peckett, C. W. E. 1992. “The Oral Method.” JACT Review 11: 4-8.
Explains how the Oral Method for teaching languages arose from the Direct Method; gives many examples of how to teach various grammatical constructions; guidelines for teaching Latin orally.

Ryan-Scheutz, Colleen, and Laura M. Colangelo. 2004. "Full Scale Theater Production and Foreign Language Learning." Foreign Language Annals 37.3: 374-89.
Make the case for theater production as a particularly good way to develop communication skills, especially speaking and reading.

Strasheim, Lorraine. 1987. Total Physical Response. Amherst, MA: Classical Association of New England.
Activities for Latin students that integrate movement and listening.

Traupman, John. 2007. Conversational Latin for Oral Proficiency. 4th ed. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci.
Chapters arranged by topics, such as greetings, family, leisure activities. Each chapter includes model conversations at three levels of difficulty and topical vocabulary.

Wills, Jeffrey. 1998. “Speaking Latin in Schools and Colleges.” Classical World 92: 27-34.
Offers five simple oral activities for classroom use. Argues that adding some oral work in classical languages is useful because it reaches a greater number of students, adds variety to the classroom, reduces the affective filter, students recognize the usefulness of oral Latin, is often more efficient than writing.

Reading (not translation)
Aebersold, Jo Ann, and Mary Lee Field. 1997. From Reader to Reading Teacher: Issues and Strategies for Second Language Classrooms. Cambridge, ENG: Cambridge University Press.
Chapters on models of reading, factors that influence reading in a foreign language, designing a reading course, preparing to read, reading the text, reviewing reading, vocabulary issues in teaching reading, using literature, assessing foreign language reading, and planning the reading lesson.

Barnett, Marva A. 1989. More than Meets the Eye. Foreign Language Reading: Theory and Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Reviews research on reading, both first and second language, and includes many activities for developing reading proficiency.

Carrell, Patricia L., Joanne Devine, and David Eskey, Eds. 1988. Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading. Cambridge, ENG: Cambridge University Press.
Papers that explore reading processes, especially the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes in second language reading. Review of research, new case studies, and implications for instruction.

Dixon, Mollie. 1993. “Read Latin Aloud.” JACT Review 13 (1993) 4-8.
The benefits of reading Latin aloud to help students learn to read phrase by phrase and in Latin word order.

Grabe, William. 2009. Reading in a Second Language: Moving from Theory to Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 
Part I: Foundations of Reading includes a readable overview defining reading, how reading works, comprehension processes, cognitive issues in reading, and models of reading. Part 2 explores L1 and L2 reading relationships, social contexts of reading, and the motivation for reading. Parts 3-4 discuss ways to develop reading comprehension abilities and fluency.

Grabe, William, and Fredericka Stoller. 2002. Teaching and Researching Reading. Harlow, ENG: Pearson Education.
Excellent summary of recent research on L1 and L2 reading and how it applies to teaching reading. Summarizes and critiques nine research studies on L1 reading and ten on L2 reading. Explains how teachers can conduct action research projects in the classroom.

Han, ZhaoHong, and Neil J. Anderson, eds. 2009. Second Language Reading Research and Instruction: Crossing the Boundaries. Michigan.
Chapters focus on reading ability and word recognition speed; developing vocabulary knowledge through extensive reading; vocabulary processing and acquisition through reading; modifying the L2 reading text; effective reading instruction; ACTIVE Reading; computers in L2 reading; balancing between comprehension and acquisition.

Harrison, Rebecca. 2010. “Exercises for Developing Prediction Skills in Reading Latin Sentences.Teaching Classical Languages 2.1: 1-30.
Reviews the relevant research on the process of reading, esp. in Latin word order. Then analyzes typical unsuccessful reading strategies and presents more than twenty concrete examples that will help teachers and students read in Latin word order and to utilize what comes early in the sentence to predict what types of grammatical constructions are likely to come as the sentence unfolds.

Kern, Richard. 2003. "Literacy as a New Organizing Principle for Foreign Language Education." In P.C. Patrikis, ed. Reading Between the Lines. New Haven: Yale.
Compares teaching approaches that emphasize structure or communication with sociocognitive view of literacy. His model of literacy offers an alternative to traditional grammar-translation or utilitarian communicative approaches. It involves discourse analysis, intercultural exploration, responding to how language is used, reflection, and revising.

Knutson, E. M. 1997. "Reading with a Purpose: Communicative Reading Tasks for the Foreign Language Classroom." Foreign Language Annals 30.1: 49-57.
Provides ways to focus on meaning when reading.

O’Neal, William J. 1990. “Transitional Latin and the Gods.” Classical Journal 85: 142-47.
Describes the benefits of reading authentic texts about mythology which will help students of Latin make the transition from beginning to intermediate levels. In particular, he discusses the style, syntax, and proclivities of the first Vatican mythographer (fl. 415 CE), Second Vatican Mythographer (Carolingian Age), and the Third Vatican Mythographer (12th century CE).

Phillips, June K. 1984. "Practical Implications of Recent Research in Reading." Foreign Language Annals 17: 285-96.
A seminal article. Reviews research and then applies it to the classroom with numerous suggested activities.

Swaffar, Janet, and Katherine Arens. 2005. Remapping the foreign language curriculum: An approach through multiple literacies. New York: Modern Language Association.
Like Kern, Swaffar and Arens propose that anchoring language acquisition through reading offers a more holistic approach to teaching languages at all levels. Chapters include a template for beginning and intermediate learner tasks; a template for advanced-learner tasks: staging genre reading and cultural literacy through the Précis; from reading to reading literature: a language teaching perspective; from multiple literacies to cultural studies: constructing a framework for learning culture.

Reading Literature
Bernhardt, Elizabeth. 2011. Understanding Advanced Second Language Reading. New York and London: Routledge.
Provides a coherent model of reading grounded in the compensatory theory of L2 reading, informed by a careful review of research.  Explores how literate adolescents and adults comprehend, and learn to comprehend, at greater levels of sophistication.  Discusses how to assess learning to read and teaching reading.

Devitt, Sean. 1997. “Interacting with Authentic Texts: Multilayered Processes.” The Modern Language Journal 81: 457-69.
Links the two fields of second language acquisition and reading research and encourages several layers of interactive processes in reading authentic texts: working with words, creating stories, unscrambling sentences, editing texts, and elaborating on authentic texts.

Harrison, Rebecca. 2007. "A Structural Arrangement of Text to Facilitate Reading." Classical Journal 102.3: 291-303.
Describes a method for arranging text by commata and cola in order to emphasize structural and semantic units. Illustrates the method with passages from Descartes, Caesar, and Cicero.

Hoyos, Dexter. 1993. “Reading, Recognition, Comprehension: The Trouble with Understanding Latin.” JACT Review 13:11-16.
Argues against the approach of decoding or disentangling of a Latin sentence; offers four basic principles for reading; then illustrates typical patterns in Roman prose: chronological order and logical arrangement. In addition, clauses and phrases are framed by the first and last words, words which define the essential structure of the group, in a kind of 'arch' structure.

Hoyos, B. Dexter. 1997. Latin. How to Read It Fluently: A Practical Manual. Amherst, MA: Classical Association of New England.
A more detailed version of Hoyos’ approach to reading Latin in Latin word order.

Lister, Bob. 2009. “Latin in Transition.” Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 8.2: 191–200.
Explains the importance of anticipation, context, and reading in order; offers an exercise from Chinua Achebe's Arrow of God to help students reflect on the skills of expert readers.

Markus, Donka, and Deborah Pennell Ross. 2004. "Reading Proficiency in Latin through Expectations and Visualization." Classical World 98.1: 79-93.
Introduce the idea of visualizing a text architecturally and cinematically help students read a text linearly. Additionally, training students what to expect as a text unfolds--semantic, morphological, syntactic, and cultural--helps them proceed more successfully through a text.

Markus, Donka. 1999. "New Wine in Old Skins: Visual Codes for Teaching Sentence-structure in Latin." Classical Outlook 76.3: 89-93.
Explores how visual coding of different font size and bolding can assist Latin students.

Tucker, Holly, and Virginia Mitchell Scott. 2002. SLA and the Literature Classroom: Fostering Dialogues. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
An important collection of essays that critique how literature has been taught and re-thinks the teaching of literature, offering connections between literature and critical thinking and culture.

Urlaub, Per. 2013. "Questioning the Text: Advancing Literary Reading in the Second Language through Web-based Strategy Training." Foreign Language Annals 46.3: 508-21.
Reports on the success of web-based tutorials that teach students to question the author with 1) basic content and interpretive questions, 2) cross-cultural questions, and 3) global questions to explore the social and historical implications of the text

Extensive Reading
Bamford, Julian, and Richard Day. 2004. Extensive Reading Activities for Teaching Language. New York: Cambrisge University Press.
A follow-up to their 1998 book, this time with practical activities.

Crooker, Jill, and Kate Rabiteau. 2004. "Enriching the Latin Curriculum by Adapting Authentic Passages." Classical Outlook 82.1: 14-18.
Offer general hints for adapting, general rules for writing reading comprehension questions, activities and teaching strategies for teaching an authentic Latin text, in this case a passage about a Stoic philosopher caught in a terrible storm at sea (Aulus Gellius 19.1.1-10).

Davidheiser, James C. 2008. "Fairy Tales and Foreign Languages: Ever the Twain Shall Meet." Foreign Language Annals 42.2: 215-25.
Presents the historical background of European fairy talesand describes how to teach fairy tales at the elementary through advanced levels.

Day, Richard, and Julian Bamford. 1998. Extensive Reading in the Second Language Classroom. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Day and Bamford articulate why and how extensive reading helps develop language skills, vocabulary development, and motivation. Practical suggestions for setting up an extensive reading program. A great read.

Hinke, C. J. 2006. "A Short Bibliography of Modern Children's Books in Latin." Classical Outlook 83.4: 138-39.
Looking for publication info about Latin versions of The Wizard of Oz or Winnie the Pooh or Dr. Seuss? Look no further.

Maxim, Hiram H. 2002. "A Study into the Feasibility and Effects of Reading Extended Authentic Discourse in the Beginning German language Classroom. Modern Language Journal 86.1: 20-35.
A study of first semester German students who read 20 minutes each class and perform just as well as traditional German students on departmental standard tests, plus develop reading skills.

Writing
Byrnes, Heidi, Hiram Maxim, and John M. Norris. 2010. Realizing Advanced Foreign Language Development in Collegeiate Education: Curricular Design, Pedagogy, Assessment. Modern Language Journal 94 Supplement.
As part of a larger curriculum project (Developing Multiple Literacies), this ambitious and well-designed research project shows how writing development is linked to advanced-level FL learning outcomes as students progress through a series of writing assignments in different genres (e.g., invitation, postcard, fairy tale, political appeal, letter to a journal editor) that measure student progress in acquiring a foreign language. Includes rubrics for assessment of student writing within a genre based approach and data showing increasing syntactic complexity of student writing.

Carson, Joan G., and Ilona Leki, Eds. Reading in the Composition Classroom: Second Language Perspectives. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Review of research on reading-writing connections as well as the presentation of original research on cognitive and social issues pertinent to the relationship of reading and writing.

Grabe, William, and Robert B. Kaplan. 1996. Theory and Practice of Writing. London and New York: Longman.
Reviews research on writing in both first and second languages, proposes a theory of writing, and provides many practical ways to teach writing at beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels.

Kroll, Barbara, ed. 1990. Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom. Cambridge, ENG: Cambridge University Press.
First half reviews current research on theoretical approaches to second language composition, process approaches to writing, responding to student writing, and connections between reading and writing. The second half reports on new studies that explore issues such as the effect of first language on second language writing, in-class vs. at-home compositions, schema training, and feedback on student compositions.

Raimes, Ann. 1983. Techniques in Teaching Writing. Oxford, ENG: Oxford University Press.
Chapters include techniques in using pictures, using readings, using all language skills, in using controlled writing, in teaching organization, and responding to student writing.

Reid, Joy. 1993. Teaching ESL Writing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Includes chapters on research of both first and second language writing, syllabus design, student and teacher styles and strategies, sample assignments, and responding and evaluating student writing.

Grammar in a Communicative Context
Adair-Hauck, Bonnie, and Richard Donato. “The PACE Model: A Story Based Approach to Meaning and Form for Standards Based Language Learning.” French Review 76 (2002): 265-76.

-----. “The PACE Model—Actualizing the Standards through Storytelling.” French Review 76 (2002): 278-98.
The PACE model integrates grammar with all four skills. It begins with the Presentation of a story, followed by Attention to the new structure, Co-construction of an explanation of the new structure, and Extension activities to help the learner use the new structure within a communicative framework.

Celce-Murcia, Marianne, and Sharon Hillis. 1988. Techniques and Resources in Teaching Grammar. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Practical activities for introducing grammar into the classroom. Chapters on listening and responding, telling stories, drama, pictures, realia, and graphics, songs and verse, games and problem-solving activities, and text-based activities.

Deagon, Andrea Webb. 1991. "Learning Process and Exercise Sequencing in Latin Instruction." Classical Journal 87: 59-70.
Recommends both variety and a gradual sequencing of language activities that develop automatic responses, keep anxiety levels low, and reinforce vocabulary and syntax within meaningful contexts. Includes examples of classroom activities.

Haight, Carrie, Carol Herron, Steven P. Cole. 2007. “The Effects of Deductive and Guided Inductive Instructional Approaches on the Learning of Grammar in the Elementary Foreign Language College Classroom.” Foreign Language Annals 40.2: 288-310.
Forty-seven second semester French students were taught eight grammatical structures, four with a deductive approach and four with a guided inductive approach. Results indicate a significant difference favoring a guided inductive approach.

Larsen-Freeman, Diane. 2001. “Teaching Grammar.” In Marianne Celce-Murcia, ed. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle. 251-66.
Discusses a framework for teaching grammar that integrates form, function, and meaning.

Mahoney, Anne. 2004. “The Forms You Really Need to Know.” Classical Outlook 81: 101-105.
Analyzes the relative frequency of verb and noun forms in Greek and Latin literature in order to argue what forms beginning and intermediate students should concentrate on.

Ruebel, James S. 1996. “The Ablative as Adverb: Practical Linguistics and Practical Pedagogy.” Classical Journal 92: 57-63.
Argues that labels for the many uses of the ablative can be less than helpful for beginning students and shows the usefulness of teaching the ablative as a noun-phrase used as an adverb, answering the questions “how,” “when,” “why,” or “where.”

Seligson, Gerda, and Daniel J. Taylor. 1985. “Relief Is in Sight: Observations on Greek and English Grammar.” Classical Journal 80: 157-58.
Explains αὐτός, ἄν, uses of the optative, and sequence of moods.

Ur, Penny. 1988. Grammar Practice Activities: A Practical Guide for Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Part 1 contains guidelines for the design of grammar activities and practical hints; Part 2 contains over 200 game-like activities for practicing English grammar (many can be adapted to Latin or Greek).

Vocabulary
Eyraud, Kevin, Gillian Giles, Susan Koenig, and Fredericka L. Stoller. 2000. "The Word Wall Approach: Promoting Vocabulary Learning." English Teaching Forum 38.3: 2-11.
By placing words on a classroom wall, the word wall approach provides opportunities for multiple exposures, make connections between new and unknown words, and build context around new words. Describes vocabulary building activities that take advantage of the word wall approach. Great idea!

Francese, Christopher. Greek Core Vocabulary. Dickinson College Commentaries (2014).
This list contains about 500 of the most common words in ancient Greek. These are the lemmas or dictionary headwords that generate approximately 65% of the word forms in a typical Greek text. Created from those texts in the TLG database up to AD 200, for a total of 20.003 million words.

Francese, Christopher. Latin Core Vocabulary. Dickinson College Commentaries (2014).
The Latin list contains about 1000 of the most common words in Latin. These are the lemmas or dictionary headwords that generate approximately 70% of the word forms in a typical Latin text. Created from Diederich's database of 202,158 words and Dictionnaire fréquentiel's database of 794,662 words (582,411 from prose authors, 212,251 from poetry).

Gairns, Ruth, and Stuart Redman. 1986. Working with Words: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Cambridge, ENG: Cambridge University Press.
A practical guide for how teachers can select, organize, and teach vocabulary at all levels. The book is divided into three sections: words and their meanings, principles in teaching and learning vocabulary, and classroom activities.

Major, Wilfred E. 2008. "It's Not the Size, It's the Frequency: The Value of Using a Core Vocabulary in Beginning and Intermediate Greek." CPL Online 4.1.
Provides a rationale why students should master the 50% and 80% list of Greek vocabulary; an appendix lists the words on these two lists.

Muccigrosso, John D. 2004. “Frequent Vocabulary in Latin Instruction.” Classical World 97: 409-33.

Nation, I. S. P. 2001. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Offers a detailed survey of research on learning vocabulary, successful strategies for learning vocabulary, and tips for using class time efficiently in teaching vocabulary.

Nation, I. S. P. 1990. Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. New York, NY: Newbury House.

Rydberg-Cox, Jeffrey, and Anne Mahoney. 2002. “Vocabulary Building in the Perseus Digital Library.” Classical Outlook 79: 145-49.
Explains the how to use the Perseus Vocabulary Tool to create specialized vocabulary lists for beginning, intermediate, and advanced students.

Schmitt, Norbert, Xiangying Jiang, and William Grabe. 2011. "The Percentage of Words Known in a Text and Reading Comprehension." Modern Language Journal 95.1: 26-43.
In this study, 661 participants from 8 countries completed a vocabulary measure based on words from two texts, read the texts, and then completed a reading comprehension test for each text. The results reveal linear relationship between vocabulary known and reading comprehension. In addition, 98% of vocabulary known is a more reasonable target for readers of academic texts.

Other Issues, Other Resources

Second Culture Acquisition
Allen, Linda Quinn. 2004. “Implementing a Culture Portfolio Project within a Constructivist Paradigm.” Foreign Language Annals 37: 232-39.
Students identify stereotypes about the target culture and their own culture, do research, and then accept or reject the validity of the stereotypes. Students also demonstrate their own thinking process by explaining how their various sources of information led them to accept or reject their hypotheses.

Crawford-Lange, L.M., and D.L. Lange. 1984. “Doing the Unthinkable in the Second-Language Classroom: A Process for the Integration of Language and Culture.” In T.V. Higgs, ed. Teaching for Proficiency, The Organizing Principle. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook. 139-77.
Advocates an approach that begins with culture and leads to language learning, that asks students to understand culture within a larger framework, that teaches cultural understanding as a process that helps students move from stereotypes to cultural awareness, that includes students’ experiences and feelings about the culture.

Gruber-Miller, John. 2008. "Teaching Culture in Beginning Greek." CPL Online 4.1.
Argues that knowing the events, memories, and stories (artifacts/products), how members of the community relate to each other (behavior/practices), and what they collectively believe and value (attitudes/perspectives) is crucial for Greek and Latin students to comprehend the texts they read. Offers specific classroom activities as examples of his approach.

Jourdain, Sarah. 1998. “Building Connections to Culture: A Student-Centered Approach.” Foreign Language Annals 31: 439-47.
Describes a three phase model for addressing culture: information gathering, target-language communication, and discussion of cultural values. The student-centered focus helps students strengthen their research and communication skills; the teacher acts as a facilitator and guide.

Kramsch, Claire. 1993. Context and Culture in Language Teaching. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Explores the importance of cultural context in language teaching. Proposes a dialectic between the voices of the students, the text, and the target culture to help understand the multiplicity of voices to be negotiated and appreciated in teaching language and culture.

Moran, Patrick. 2001. Teaching Culture: Perspectives in Practice. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
A readable introduction to teaching culture that integrates teachers’ voices and self-reflective investigations. Separate chapters on defining culture, cultural products, practices, and perspectives, cultural communities and persons, and the culture learning process.

Scott, Virginia M., and Julie A. Huntington. 2002. “Reading Culture: Using Literature to Develop C2 Competence.” Foreign Language Annals 35: 622-31.
Argues that literary texts, even at the beginning level, can contribute to students’ knowledge and understanding of other cultures through affective learning and cognitive flexibility.

Storme, Julie A., and Mana Derekhshani. 2002. “Defining, Teaching, and Evaluating Cultural Proficiency in the Foreign Language Classroom.” Foreign Language Annals 35: 657-68.
Summarize recent research, propose a model of culture teaching, and make suggestions for the evaluation of cultural proficiency

Testing and Assessment
Bachman, Lyle F., and Adrian S. Palmer. 1996. Language Testing in Practice. New York, NY: Oxford.
Provides a conceptual framework and step-by-step processes for test making. Topics include the qualities of test usefulness; interrelationship of language testing, language teaching, and language use; performance testing; fairness in testing; and recognition that test scores are only one piece of information in making decisions about test-takers.

Bailey, Kathleen M. 1998. Learning about Language Assessment: Dilemmas, Decisions, and Directions. Pacific Grove, CA: Heinle & Heinle.
Provides a practical analysis of language assessment theory and accessible explanations of the statistics involved; focuses on communicative language testing and alternative assessments for the classroom.

Delett, Jennifer S., Sarah Barnhardt, and Jennifer A. Kevorkian. 2001. “A Framework for Portfolio Assessment in the Foreign Language Classroom.” Foreign Language Annals 34: 559-68.
Guide teachers to establish the purpose and objectives, decide the contents, and create meaningful criteria for portfolio assessment.

Genesee, Fred, and John A. Upshur. 1996. Classroom-Based Evaluation in Second Language Education. Cambridge, ENG: Cambridge.
Present the context of second language evaluation (3 chapters); understand ‘evaluation’ to include classroom observation, portfolios, conferences, journals, questionaires, and interviews (3 chapters); and discuss both objective-referenced or classroom-based and standardized tests (6 chapters).

Technology
Bush, Michael D., and Robert M. Terry, Eds. 1997. Technology-Enhanced Language Learning. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook.
Excellent collection of essays produced for ACTFL, offering essays on how to use technology to teach the four skills, using technology ranging from software and CDs to local area networks to the Internet. Also includes chapters on evaluating technology resources, designing labs, and implementing technology.

Cameron, Keith, ed. 1999. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Media, Designs, and Applications. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger.
Articles on computer-mediated communication, user-driven and content-driven research and development of programs, authoring programs, CALL design, evaluation, sociocollaborative language learning, speech recognition, grammar checking, visual grammar, corpora of texts, and computer-assisted writing.

Crane, Gregory. 1998. “New Technologies for Reading: The Lexicon and the Digital Library.” Classical World 91: 471-501.
Discusses differences between printed sources and the Internet in accessing lexical information while reading. In particular, notes how Liddell-Scott-Jones, Greek-English Lexicon, 9th ed. (Oxford 1940) is transformed in hyperspace.

De Luce, Judith, Suzanne Bonefas, and Susan Bonvallet, eds. 2001. Special Issue: Classics and Technology. CALICO Journal 18.2: 207-403.
Features a review of fifty years of classical computing, a description of a virtual classics department (Sunoikisis), articles on VRoma and Perseus, a collaborative project (high school and university) teaching Roman drama, Latin grammar drills, annotated intermediate Latin texts, and beginning ancient Greek.

Felix, Uschi, ed. 2003. Language Learning On-line: Towards Best Practice. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger.
Includes essays on optimizing web course design for language learning; servers, clients, testing, and teaching; engaging the learner; MOOs and virtual worlds as arenas for language learning; and using internet-based audio-graphic and video conferencing for language teaching.

Pennington, Martha C., ed. 1996. The Power of CALL. Houston, TX: Athelstan.
Reviews CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) research and how it fits in with other second language research, discusses networks, hypermedia, and concordancing in language teaching, and includes chapters on CALL and reading, writing, and spoken language skills.

Andrew Reinhard, “From Slate to Tablet PC: Using New Technologies to Teach and Learn Latin and Greek”, CJ Forum Online 2008.03.03.
Surveys eLearning trends, especially collaborative/community learning: discussion lists, online study groups, social networks, virtual worlds, online games and exercises, wikis, and blogs.

Reinhard, Andrew. 2009. "Social Networking in Latin Class: A How-To Guide." Teaching Classical Languages 1.1: 4-29.

Warschauer, Mark, ed. 1996. Telecollaboration in Foreign Language Teaching. University of Hawaii: Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.
Focuses on the networked classroom, and utilizing hypermedia, the World Wide Web, email, MOOs, and bulletin boards.

Teaching Greek
Bachvarova, Mary. 2007. "Actions and Attitudes: Understanding Greek (and Latin Verbal Paradigms." Classical World 100.2: 123-32.
New tools to teach the middle, aorist, aspect, and forms of the principal parts.

Clark, Rachael. 2009. "Greek Vocabulary in Popular Textbooks." Teaching Classical Languages 1.1: 67-108.
Compares how Athenaze and From Alpha to Omega utilize vocabulary from the 50% and 80% lists. The appendices provide a list of core vocabulary that corresponds to each textbook.

Genovese, E. N. 2001. “Linguatour: A Survey Course of Ancient Greek.” Classical World 94: 385-88.
Describes an eight week short course introducing ancient Greek to mature adults.

Gruber-Miller, John. 2008. "Teaching Culture in Beginning Greek." CPL Online 4.1.
Argues that knowing the events, memories, and stories (artifacts/products), how members of the community relate to each other (behavior/practices), and what they collectively believe and value (attitudes/perspectives) is crucial for Greek and Latin students to comprehend the texts they read. Offers specific classroom activities as examples of his approach.

Irby-Massie, Georgia. 2009. "That Ain't Workin'; That's the Way You Do It: Teaching Greek through Popular Music." Teaching Classical Languages 1.1: 30-66.
Each song is focused around one or two significant concepts (e.g., adverbs, participles, the optative mood). Songs include Color Man (Iron Man), Monster Mash, Money for Nothing, Twelve Days of the Dionysia, Rainbow Country, Greek Heart of Oak, A Drop of Bromius' Blood (Drop of Nelson's Blood), Myrrhine had a little Hedgehog (Mary had a little Lamb), Here Comes the Sun, It Will Regrow (I will Survive).

Kitchell, Kenneth F., Jr., Edward Phinney, Susan Shelmerdine, and Marilyn Skinner. 1996. “Greek 2000--Crisis, Challenge, Deadline.” Classical Journal 91: 393-420.
Reviews the study of Greek in the U.S., enrollments, textbooks, and curriculum goals, and asks how to improve the situation.

Major, Wilfred E. 2008. "It's Not the Size, It's the Frequency: The Value of Using a Core Vocabulary in Beginning and Intermediate Greek." CPL Online 4.1.
Provides a rationale why students should master the 50% and 80% list of Greek vocabulary; an appendix lists the words on these two lists.

Reece, Steve. 1998. “Teaching Koine Greek in a Classics Department.” Classical Journal 93: 417-29.
Focuses on how to introduce Acts of the Apostles in the intermediate Greek curriculum.

Schork, R. J. 1995. “Cebes’ Tablet as a Bridge-Text in the Greek Program.” Classical Journal 91: 65-69.
Touts the advantages of using Cebes’ Tablet, a first century CE allegory about the rocky road to true happiness, as an intermediate text that reinforces Greek grammar while reading an authentic text.

Wallace, Rex. 2007. "Using Morphophonology in Elementary Ancient Greek." Classical World 100.2: 133-41.
Why do all those stems on Greek nouns and verbs change with different endings? A linguist explains all.

Winters, Timothy F. 2003. “Dedicated to Greek: Using Inscriptions in Elementary Greek.” Classical Journal 98: 289-94.
Offers specific suggestions for incorporating simple inscriptions into beginning Greek, such as the annual list of the Athenian war dead (demosion sema inscriptions) or dedications from the Athenian acropolis, as ways for integrating authentic texts into the classroom and stimulating discussions about Greek culture.

Professional Development

Implementing National Standards
Abbott, Martha G., Sally Davis, and Richard C. Gascoyne. 1998. “National Standards and Curriculum Guidelines.” In Richard A. LaFleur, ed. Latin for the 21st Century. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley. 44-58.
Presents the historical context for the creation of the Standards, explains each of the Standards, and offers curriculum guidelines for Latin I-II.

Gascoyne, Richard, et al. 1997. Standards for Classical Language Learning. Oxford, OH: American Classical League. Available at: http://www.aclclassics.org/pdf/standards.pdf.
Presents not only the five goals–Communication, Culture, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities– for learning Latin and Greek, but also sample progress indicators for each level, fifteen classroom scenarios, plus FAQ’s about the Standards.

Magnan, Sally S., Dianna Murphy, and Narek Sahakyan. 2014. Goals of Collegiate Learners and the Standards for Foreign Language Learning. Modern Language Journal 98 Supplement.
Presents a national study (n=16,529) about how the language learning goals of college students are reflected in Standards. Using both a questionnaire and in-depth interviews of 200 students, the study considers college student goals and their expectations of achieveing those goals; compares 1st semester beginners with 2nd semester intermediate students; and compares student goals and expectations of commonly-taught languages and those of less commonly taught languages.

Phillips, June K., and Jamie Draper. 1999. The Five Cs: The Standards for Foreign Language Learning WorkText. Boston, MA: Heinle.
Designed for self-study or teacher-training courses: each section asks the reader to analyze the Standards and relate it to his or her own teaching, create materials for the classroom, and reflect on the results. Also contains a summary of the Standards.

Phillips, June K., and Robert M. Terry, eds. 1998. Foreign Language Standards: Linking Research, Theories, and Practices. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook.
Chapters on Goals 1-4 plus a chapter on “Meeting the needs of all learners: case studies in computer-based foreign language reading”; discusses primarily the theoretical underpinnings of the Standards with some practical applications.

Latin Teacher Recruitment and Preparation
ACL-APA Joint Task Force on Teacher Training and Certification. 2010. Standards for Latin Teacher Preparation. Oxford, OH: ACL and APA.

Keitel, Elizabeth, ed. 2009. "Teacher Training Programs: Meeting the Challenges of a New Century." Classical World 102.3: 311-29. Essays by Ronnie Ancona, Victoria Pagan, and Judith Hallett and Lillian Doherty that explain the steps in the training a new Latin teacher, discuss the costs and benefits of preparing new Latin teachers, and offer an alternative model for teacher training.

Kitchell, Kenneth, ed. 2000. "The Latin Teacher Shortage: A Call to Action." Classical Outlook 78.1: 1-19. Brief essays by Peter Howard, Cathy Daugherty, Daniel Tompkins, Adam Blistein, and Kenneth Kitchell that outline the scope of the problem, discuss current trends in education, and offer possible solutions.

"Perspectives on the New Standards for Latin Teacher Preparation." 2010. Special Section of Teaching Classical Languages 1.2: 156-195.
Those offering perspectives include two members of the Task Force (Ronnie Ancona and Lee Pearcy), a past President of the ACL (Ken Kitchell), a former World Languages District Supervisor (Cathy Daugherty), new Latin teachers (Cory Holec and Erik Collins), and a veteran Latin teacher (Bob Patrick).

Research on the Benefits of Latin and Advocacy for Language Learning

DeVane, Alice K. 1997. "The Efficacy of Latin Studies in the Information Age." Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.
Reviews the efficacy of studying Latin as a means of improving English skills (including reading, vocabulary, grammar and comprehension for both native and non-native speakers), facilitating the learning of another foreign language, and improving critical thinking skills. 

Masciantonio, Rudolph. 1977. "Tangible benefits of the study of Latin: A review of research." Foreign Language Annals 10: 375-382.
Latin instruction in the elementary grades had been shown to result in significant and dramatic gains in standardized test performance in basic skills areas.

Mavrogenes, Nancy. 1987. "Latin and Language Arts: An Update." Foreign Language Annals 20: 131-37.
A review of the status and results of Latin instruction in the elementary grades considers such trends as cuts in or lack of funding, the training of teachers in other fields to teach Latin, promotional activities, and other program improvements.

Rivers, William P., John P. Robinson, Paul G. Harwood, and Richard D. Brecht. 2013. "Language Votes: Attitudes toward Foreign Language Policies." Foreign Language Annals 46.3: 329-38.
Reports on two national surveys that show broad public support for foreign languages: 80% of respondents agreed that children should learn a second language fluently before they finish high school; fewer than 25% thought that bilingual education should be eliminated; and 62% expressed tolerance of other languages. The authors argue that the data may reveal that the American public understands that we are part of a worldwide multilingualism and plurilingualism where Americans are accustomed to hearing and using a language other than English as part of the fabric of their world.

Organizations and Journals that focus on language teaching
American Classical League (ACL):
Audience: Latin and Greek teachers, K-16; publishes Classical Outlook.

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)
Audience: all foreign languages, all levels; publishes Foreign Language Annals.

Association of Departments of Foreign Languages (ADFL)
Audience: college/university; publishes ADFL Bulletin.

Classical Association of the Atlantic States (CAAS)
Audience: Latin and Greek teachers, K-16; publishes Classical World.

Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO)
Audience: those who are interested in language teaching and technology; publishes CALICO Journal.

Classical Association of the Middle West and South (CAMWS)
Audience: Latin and Greek teachers, K-16; publishes Classical Journal; sponsors the Committee for the Promotion of Latin.

Classical Association of New England (CANE)
Audience: Latin and Greek teachers, K-16; publishes New England Classical Journal.

Joint Association of Classical Teachers (JACT)
Audience: Latin and Greek teachers, K-16; publishes JACT Review.

Teaching materials, bibliographies, resources for Latin and Greek teachers
Classics Technology Center on the Web. Ablemedia.
Contains teaching materials, learning resources, systems, and applications.

Kazmierski, Sharon. Latinteach.
This website includes archives of Latinteach discussions as well as teaching guides, lesson plan ideas and projects, extensive set of links, reviews of textbooks, and other material of interest to Latin teachers.

Latousek, Rob. Software Directory for the Classics. American Classical League.

Siegel, Janice. Survey of Audio-Visual Resources for Classics. Stoa.org.
Searchable database.

Svarlien, Diane Arnson. “Children’s Books on the Ancient World: A Selective Bibliography.” University of Kentucky Classics.
A great list of books, both in English and Latin, that will appeal to children.

Searching for More Information
University of Kentucky Classics.
Features links to a wide variety of organizations, discussion lists, and internet resources.

Liu, Alan. The Voice of the Shuttle: Web Page for Humanities Research. University of California, Santa Barbara.

 

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