103. Investigations
Investigative approach to the solution of biological problems, emphasizing designing, executing, and interpreting research. Specific research areas are confined to the interests of each instructor. Recommended for non-science majors. (Laboratory Science)

106. Biology for the Schools
Basic biology, emphasizing the investigative approach to solve biological problems. Students will design, execute, and interpret research. Class projects will teach application of scientific method and basic laboratory techniques. Research topics will vary with each instructor. Recommended for Education majors. (Laboratory Science)

108. Introductory topics in Biology
Selected areas of biology, emphasizing the application of biological concepts and theory to humans and their environment. Topics vary each term. See Topics Courses. Recommended for non-science majors. (Science)

141. Foundations: Cellular Biology
Study of living organisms, designed to introduce the principles of cell structure, cell function, information transfer, development, and cellular physiology. This course is a prerequisite for most upper-level Biology courses. (Laboratory Science)

142. Foundations: Organismal Biology
The topics of genetics, evolution, speciation, classification, the diversity of life, ecology, biological communities, and animal behavior. This course is a prerequisite for all upper-level Biology courses. (Laboratory Science)

and Molecular Biology
Basic metabolism and organization of cells and intracellular organelles. Introduction to the structure and synthesis of biological macromolecules. Prerequisites: BIO 141, BIO 142, and CHE 225. (Laboratory Science)

207. Systems Physiology
Fundamental study of the complementarity of human anatomical structure and physiological function of the integumentary, endocrine, nervous, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems. Special emphasis on development of a mechanistic understanding of organ system function and integrated physiological function across systems to promote homeostatic regulation in the human body. Inclusion of experiential learning through laboratory activities. Prerequisite: sophomore standing. Cross Listed as KIN 207. (Laboratory Science)

209. Plant Morphology
Structure and function of plants. Ecological, evolutionary, and physiological perspectives. BIO 141 and BIO 142. (Laboratory Science)

211. Evolution
Principles of evolution. Emphasis on modern evolutionary biology, evidence, and methods of hypothesis testing. BIO 141 and BIO 142. (Laboratory Science)

230. Conservation Biology
Ecological, evolutionary, and other biological principles and their application to the maintenance of global and local biodiversity. One or more field trips may extend beyond normal class hours. Prerequisite: BIO 142. (Science) 

254. Ornithology
Basic biology of birds, emphasizing taxonomy, structure, ecology, behavior, distribution, and natural history. May include an extended field trip. Other field trips may extend beyond normal class hours. Prerequisite: BIO 142. Alternate years. (Laboratory Science)

280/380. InternshipSee Additional Academic Programs, All-College Independent Study Courses 280/380.

281-285. Topics in Biology
Study of a selected topic of current interest or concern in biology. See Topics Courses.

290/390. Individual ProjectSee Additional Academic Programs, All-College Independent Study Courses 290/390.

305. Advanced Molecular Biology
A continuation of BIO 205, with coverage of a topic of interest in molecular biology such as virology, aging, cytoskeleton, gene regulation, hormones, or oncology. Prerequisite: BIO 205. (Laboratory Science)

308. Invertebrate Zoology
Structure, classification, physiology, reproduction, life history, natural history, ecology, and evolution of invertebrates. Prerequisites: BIO 211 or BIO 141, 142, and permission of instructor. Offered subject to the availability of staff. (Laboratory Science)

312. Vertebrate Zoology
Survey of the biology of vertebrates, emphasizing structure, classification, physiology, reproductive biology, ecology, natural history, and evolution. Prerequisites: BIO 211 or BIO 141, 142, and permission of instructor. Offered subject to the availability of staff. (Laboratory Science)

313. Developmental Biology
Principles of development with an emphasis on early developmental changes. The course focuses on cellular and molecular changes associated with gene expression, induction, and morphology. Prerequisite: BIO 205. Alternate years. (Laboratory Science)

315. Genetics
Principles of inheritance in plants and animals. Emphasis on the laws of heredity and molecular genetics. Laboratory research in molecular genetics. Recommended for juniors and seniors. Not to be taken in the same academic year as BIO 205. Prerequisite: BIO 205. (Laboratory Science)

321. Ecology  (Wilderness Field Station)
Ecological theory. Why do individuals and species live the way they do, in the numbers they do, in the areas they do; and what environmental influences guided their evolution? Field trips may extend beyond normal class hours. Prerequisites: BIO 211 and permission of instructor. (Laboratory Science)

326. Microbiology
Survey of microbial world with emphasis on bacterial genetics and metabolism, and the role of microbial activities in the environment. Prerequisite: BIO 205. (Laboratory Science)

327. Immunology
A study of the human immune system including the basic principles involved in host defense mechanisms and methods of immunology. Prerequisite: BIO 205. Alternate years. (Laboratory Science)

328. Neurobiology
The molecular, cellular, and physiological aspects of the nervous system. Emphasis is placed on basic properties of nerve cells, neural circuits, and organization and function of the mammalian nervous system. Prerequisite: BIO 205. Alternate years. (Laboratory Science)

329. Human Anatomy and Physiology I
An integrative approach to understanding basic anatomical and physiological relationships of the nervous, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, respiratory, and excretory systems of the human. Prerequisites: BIO 205. Alternate years. No S/U option. (Laboratory Science)

330. Human Anatomy and Physiology II
An integrative approach to understanding basic anatomical and physiological relationships of the human skeletal, muscular, digestive, and reproductive systems and the control of these systems by the nervous and endocrine systems. Prerequisites: BIO 205. Alternate years.  No S/U option. (Laboratory Science)

332. Plant Systematics
Evolution and classification of vascular plants with an emphasis on field identification of flowering plants. Prerequisite: BIO 211. (Laboratory Science)

334. Animal Behavior
Evolution, development, causation, and function of behavior with emphasis on the origins and adaptive function of behaviors of vertebrates and invertebrates. This course includes one overnight field trip which requires an additional fee for lodging and facility rental. Other field trips may extend beyond normal class hours. Prerequisite: BIO 211. (Laboratory Science)

335. Chemical Ecology
This course explores how organisms use naturally occurring chemicals to influence ecological interactions. Case studies will illustrate both interspecific and intraspecific interactions among plants, insects, animals, and microbes, including behaviors such as mate selection, colony organization, and defense. Some attention will be given to the biochemical origins of these compounds. Prerequisite: BIO 205. Alternate years.

337. Entomology
The evolutionary history, morphology, taxonomy, physiology, ecology, behavior, and economic importance of insects. Laboratories will focus on sampling, preservation, identification, and experimentation with insects. Field trips may extend beyond normal class hours. Prerequisites: BIO 211 or BIO 141, 142, and permission of instructor. Offered every third year. (Laboratory Science)

381-385. Advanced Topics in Biology
Advanced examination of a selected topic of current interest or concern in biology.  See Topics Courses.

399. Preservation Ecology Summer Internship
Field experience during the summer under the auspices of the Iowa Nature Conservancy in preservation ecology techniques, including biological resource assessment, monitoring animal and plant populations, landowner contacts, mapping, preparing reports, and designated preserve management tasks. Prerequisites: (1) at least five term credits in Biology; (2) at least two of the following: BIO 209, 254, 308, 312, 321, 332, 334, or 337; (3) junior standing; and (4) acceptance by the Nature Conservancy.

483. Senior Seminar in Biology
Readings, presentations, and discussions from the recent research literature focused on an area of interest and/or expertise of the instructor. Prerequisites: BIO or BMB major and senior standing. Recommended prerequisite: BIO 315.

485. Biological Problems
Investigation of a biological problem, including a review of the literature, collection and interpretation of data, and writing of a research report. May be repeated once for credit. Intended for seniors or advanced juniors, this is a capstone experience for Biology majors.  Arrangements must be made with the instructor before registering.

511. Extended Research in Biology (1/4)
Reading in depth on a topic of current interest and the pursuit of an experimental or theoretical problem related to the topic. This adjunct course must be taken over four successive terms. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

901. Audubon Center of the North Woods: Wolf and Lynx Ecology Experiences in Northern Minnesota: see Cornell-Approved Domestic Off-Campus Programs.

963. Oak Ridge Science Semester: see Cornell-Approved Domestic Off-Campus Programs.